Unit 1 : Introduction to Accounting
Accounting- meaning, objectives, Accounting as source of information, internal and
external users of Accounting information and their needs.
Qualitative characteristics of Accounting information-reliability, relevance,
understandability and comparability.
Basic Accounting Terms - Asset, Liability, Capital, Expense, Income, Expenditure, Revenue, Debtors, Creditors, Goods, Cost, Gain, Stock, Purchase, Sales, Loss, Profit, Voucher, Discount, Transaction, Drawings.
Unit 2 : Theory Base of Accounting
Accounting Principles - meaning and nature
Accounting Concepts: Entity, Money Measurement, Going Concern, Accounting Period, Cost Concept, Dual Aspect, Revenue Recognition (Realisation), Matching, Accrual, Full Disclosure, Consistency, Conservatism,Materiality
Accounting Standards- Concept
Process of accounting-from recording of business transactions to preparation of trial balance.
Bases of Accounting - Cash Basis, Accrual Basis
Unit 3 : Recording of Business Transactions
Voucher and Transactions: Origin of Transactions-Source Documents and Vouchers, preparation of Accounting vouchers; Accounting Equation Approach - Meaning and Analysis of transactions using Accounting Equation: Rules of Debit and Credit.
Recording of Transactions: Books of original entry - Journal, Special Purpose Books: i) Cash Book – Simple, Cashbook with Bank column and Petty Cashbook, ii) Purchases Book, Sales Book, Purchase Returns Book, Sales Returns Book; Ledger-meaning, utility, format; posting from Journal and Subsidiary books; Balancing of Accounts.
Bank Reconciliation Statement: Meaning, Need and Preparation, Corrected Cash Book Balance
Unit 4 : Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors
Trial Balance: meaning, objectives and preparation.
Errors: Types of Errors: Errors of omission, commission, principles and compensating errors affecting Trial Balance; errors not affecting Trial Balance.
Detection and Rectificition of Errors (One Sided and Two Sided); use of Suspense Account.
Unit 5 : Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves
Depreciation: Meaning and need for charging depreciation, factors affecting depreciation,methods of
depreciation-Straight Line method, Written Down Value method (excludingchange in method), Method of recording depreciation-charging to asset account, creatingprovision for depreciation/accumulated depreciation account; Treatment of disposal of asset.
Provisions and Reserves: meaning, importance, difference between Provisions andReserves, types of
Reserves: Revenue Reserve, Capital Reserve, General Reserve, Specific Reserve and Secret Reserves
Unit 6 : Accounting for Bills of Exchange Transactions
Bills of exchange and Promissory Note: definition, features, parties, specimen and distinction.
Important Terms: Term of Bill, Accommodation Bill, Days of Grace, Date of Maturity, Billat Sight, Negotiation, Endorsement, Discounting of Bill, Dishonour, Retirement and Renewal of a Bill.
Accounting treatment of trade bills and accomodation bills.
Part B : Financial Accounting - II
Unit 7 : Financial Statements
Financial statements: meaning and users.
Capital Expenditure and Deferred Revenue Expenditure
Trading and Profit and Loss Account: Gross Profit, Operating and net profit.
Balance Sheet: need, grouping and marshalling of Assets and Liabilities. Vertical and Horizontal Presentation of Financial Statements.
Adjustments in preparation of financial statements with respect to closing stock, expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued Income, Income received In advance, depreciationand bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, manager's commission.
Preparation of Trading and Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship.
Unit 8 : Accounts from incomplete records
Incomplete records : meaning, uses and limitations. Ascertainment of profit/loss by statementof affairs method, conversion method.
Unit 9 : Computers in Accounting
Introduction to Computer and Accounting Information System (AIS)
Applications of computers in accounting:
- Automation of accounting process, designing accounting reports, MISreporting, data exchange with other information systems
Comparison of accounting processes in manual and computerized accounting,highlighting advantages and
limitations of automation
Sourcing of accounting system: readymade and customized and tailor-madeaccounting system. Advantages and
disadvantages of each option.
Unit 10 : Accounting and Database System
Accounting and Database Management System
Concept of entity and relationship: entities and relationships in an Accounting System:designing and creating simple tables, forms, queries and reports in the context of Accounting System.
Recommended text books
1. Accountancy Part - I, Published by NCERT
2. Accountancy Part - II – do –
COURSE STRUCTURE
Class XI
Paper 1 3 Hours 100 Marks
Units
Part A : Statistics for Economics
1. Introduction
2. Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data
3. Statistical Tools and Interpretation
4. Developing Projects in Economics
Units
Part B : Indian Economic Development
5. Development Policies and Experience (1947-90)
6. Economic Reforms since 1991
7. Current Challenges facing Indian Economy
8. Development experience of India-A
comparison with neighbours
Part A : Statistics for Economics
In this course, the learners are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation and presentation of
quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyse, and interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. In this process, the learners are also expected to understand the behaviour of various economic data.
Unit 1 : Introduction
What is Economics?
Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics
Unit 2 : Collection, Organisation and Presentation of data
Collection of data - sources of data - primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; Some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey
Organisation.Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution.
Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).
Unit 3 : Statistical Tools and Interpretation
(For all the numerical problems and solutions, the appropriate economic interpretation may be attempted. This means, the students need to solve the problems and provide interpretation for the results derived)Measures of Central Tendency- mean (simple and weighted), median and modeMeasures of Dispersion – absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning and its application.Correlation - meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation - Karl Pearson's method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman's rank correlation.Introduction to Index Numbers - meaning, types - wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.
Unit 4 : Developing Projects in Economics
The students may be encouraged to develop projects, which have primary data, secondary data or both. Case studies of a few organisations / outlets may also be encouraged. Some of the examples of the projects are as follows (they are not mandatory but suggestive):
(i) A report on demographic structure of your neighborhood;
(ii) Consumer awareness amongst households
(iii) Changing prices of a few vegetables in your market
(iv) Study of a cooperative institution: milk cooperatives
The idea behind introducing this unit is to enable the students to develop the ways and means by which a
project can be developed using the skills learned in the course. This includes all the steps involved in designing a project starting from choosing a title, exploring the information relating to the title, collection of primary and secondary data, analysing the data, presentation of the project and using various statistical tools and their interpretation and conclusion.
Part B: Indian Economic Development
Unit 5 : Development Policies and Experience (1947-90):
A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans.Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.), industry (industrial licensing, etc,) and foreign trade.
Unit 6 : Economic Reforms since 1991:
Need and main features - liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation;An appraisal of LPG policies
Unit 7 : Current challenges facing Indian Economy:
Poverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment; Rural
development: Key issues - credit and marketing - role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming - organic farming Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India Employment: Growth, informalisation and other issues: Problems and policiesInfrastructure: Meaning-and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment;Sustainable Economic Development:Meaning; Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment.
Unit 8 : Development Experience of India:
A comparison with neighbours India and Pakistan India and China
COURSE STRUCTURE
Class XI
One Paper Three Hours Max Marks. 100
Units Marks
I. SETS AND FUNCTIONS
II. ALGEBRA
III. COORDINATE GEOMETRY
IV. CALCULUS
V. MATHEMATICAL REASONING
VI. STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
UNIT - I : SETS AND FUNCTIONS
1.Sets
Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets.Subsets. Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
2.Relations & Functions:
Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets.
Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain. codomain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain & range of a function. Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.
3. Trigonometric Functions:
Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs. Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy. Deducing the identities like the following: Identities related to sin 2x, cos2x, tan 2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin = sin , cos = cos and tan = tan
UNIT - II : ALGEBRA
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction:
Processes of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations:
Need for complex numbers, especially, to be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.
3. Linear Inequalities:
Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables- graphically.
4. Permutations & Combinations:
Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem:
History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal's triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series:
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic progression (A. P.). arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of the special series and
UNIT - III : COORDINATE GEOMETRY
1.Straight Lines
Brief recall of 2D from earlier classes. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, twopoint form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.
**2.Conic Sections**
Sections of a cone: circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and
hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.
3.Introduction to Three - dimensional Geometry
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two
points and section formula.
UNIT - IV : CALCULUS
1. Limits and Derivatives:
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
UNIT - V : MATHEMATICAL REASONING
1. Mathematical Reasoning:
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the understanding of "if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition", "implies", "and/or", "implied by", "and", "or", "there exists" and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting wordsdifference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.
UNIT - VI : STATISTICS & PROBABILITY
1.Statistics:
Measure of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.
2. Probability:
Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: occurrence of events, 'not', 'and' and 'or' events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of 'not', 'and' & 'or' events.
Recommended Textbooks.
1) Mathematics Part I - Textbook for Class XI, NCERT Publication
2) Mathematics Part II - Textbook for Class XI, NCERT Publication |